Forcing your URLs to lowercase (or another unified format) is essential to preventing duplicate links on your site.
And for most sites - especially content sites, this is a critical component of SEO and great user experience.
First, you will need to enable Apache’s “rewrite” library with the following command:
sudo a2enmod rewrite
But if it was not previous enabled, you’ll then need to restart Apache, if you are certain it is safe to restart at that time:
sudo service apache2 restart sudo systemctl restart apache2
Once you’ve done that, there’s two common ways to force your URLs to lowercase.
Addding a rule to your .htaccess file
One option is to add these rules to your .htaccess file:
RewriteEngine On RewriteMap lowercase int:tolower
With this approach, you won’t need to restart Apache. Your URLs will be automatically rewritten to lowercase right away!
Modifying your Apache configuration directly
Alternatively, there’s a similar approach you can take, if you have access to your server’s Apache configuration file.
Simply insert the same two lines just before the end of your primary
<VirtualHost *:80> ... RewriteEngine On Rewrite Map lowercase int:tolower </VirtualHost>
If it’s safe to restart your web server at that time, you’ll then need to restart Apache once more.
That’s all! I always keep this snippet on hand for when I’m spinning up a new Apache server.
Thank you for reading, and I hope this article helped!